A-z - Animals

Liger

Liger Facts

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key facts

  • Most ligers are born when a lion happens to live with a tigress.
  • When they stand on their hind legs, they can reach a height of 12 feet.
  • Female ligers are more likely to reproduce, while male ligers have long been considered sterile.

Classification and Evolution

The strongest cat - liger
Ligers are unlikely to be found in the wild

© iStock.com/yod67

Ligers are the largest cats in the world and can grow up to 12 feet tall when standing on their hind legs. Formed by mating a male lion with a female tiger, ligers are often much larger than both of their parents, and although they share similar characteristics to their parents, ligers are more lion than tiger.

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Tigons are the result of female lions mating with male tigers, animals that tend to be less lion-like but have more tiger-like qualities. Since lions and tigers live in different parts of the world, it is unlikely that ligers (or tigons) are animals that occur naturally in the wild. Some ligers are found in zoos around the world today as a result of accidental or deliberate human intervention.

anatomy and appearance

Liger (Panthera leo × Panthera tigris) - Liger Cub
Ligers inherit their mother's fur patterns

©Lizov Ivan/Shutterstock.com



Ligers are large animals with muscular bodies and broad heads. Ligers tend to have sandy or dark yellow fur covered with distinctive faint stripes inherited from their mother. While other variations in fur color are known (including white when their mother is a white tiger), ligers often have a more lion-like appearance, including the male's mane. While ligers' manes are not as large or as impressive as those of an adult lion, they can grow to be quite large on some individuals, but it is not uncommon for male ligers to have no mane at all. In addition to the most obvious stripes around the hind limbs, the liger may have inherited spots on the back of the tiger's ears and the tufted fur around the chin.

Distribution and Habitat

In nature, tigers and lions are unlikely to mate, although they may have in the past

© Akulinina Olga/Shutterstock.com

Historically, it has been possible, though rare, for male lions to mate with female tigers in the wild to produce liger offspring. That's because Asiatic lions used to roam much of Asia, meaning they could have more easily broken into tiger territory. Today, however, tigers exist only in the dense jungles of Asia, where they are squeezed into ever-smaller areas of their natural habitat. Lions, on the other hand, have been found patrolling the African savannah, with the exception of a few remaining Asiatic lions living in remote forests in India, where there are no tigers. Sadly, while the natural habitat of a liger may be very similar to that of a tiger, the only known ligers in the world are found in cages.

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Behavior and Lifestyle

Ligers are more easy-going by nature

© Ali West/Flickr

Despite their size and the fact that their parents are two of the fiercest predators on the planet, ligers are known to be relatively docile animals, especially when interacting with their handlers. However, they are reportedly a bit confused about whether they are lions or tigers, as their most confusing feature is that they seem to love water. In the wild, it is not uncommon for tigers to go into the water to hunt food or escape the heat, so they are naturally good swimmers, which seems to be inherited by ligers. However, lions do not like water, so it is often reported that ligers do take some time to adapt to a water-loving lifestyle. Another odd thing is that the liger seems to sound like a lion and a tiger at the same time, but its roar is more like that of a lion.

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Liger cubs have a low survival rate

© H Kandy/Creative Commons

Most ligers are produced through the accidental introduction of lions and tigers into the same enclosure, although it can take up to a year for the two to mate. After the male lion mates with the female tiger, after a gestation period of about 100 days, the tiger gives birth to a litter of 2 to 4 liger cubs. Like the cubs of other big cats, liger cubs are born blind and extremely fragile, relying heavily on their mothers for the first six months of life. Like lion cubs, young ligers have darker spots on their fur, which help provide them with additional camouflage. However, as with some adult lions, these spots usually remain on ligers and are most prominent on their undersides. Sadly, many liger cubs are born with birth defects and often do not live beyond a week.

diet and prey

Ligers are able to hide large amounts of meat

© Camphora – Public Domain

Like other cats around the world, the liger is a carnivore, meaning it hunts and kills other animals for nourishment. While a liger's diet in the wild can only be speculated, it is thought to be similar to tigers that preyed primarily on large herbivores, including deer, wild boar and (due to their large size) possibly small or vulnerable Asian elephants. In captivity, they tend to eat an average of 20 pounds of meat per day, but a single liger is thought to easily swallow 100 pounds of food in one sitting. Ligers have a huge, strong jaw with sharp teeth perfect for tearing apart flesh. Ligers also have very strong bodies and sharp claws which also help them catch and eat their prey.

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Predators and Threats

If they were found in the wild, ligers would be the dominant predators in their environment, so there would be no need to worry about natural predators, with the obvious exception of humans. Much like lions and tigers, ligers will suffer from hunting for trophies and pelts, as well as severe loss of much of their natural range. In captivity, many liger cubs are born with fatal birth defects as a result of hybridization between two different species. Another issue to consider is the unnatural nature of ligers breeding and keeping in various parts of the world. Since ligers are extremely unlikely to occur in the wild today, they are only bred and bred by zoos for money.

Interesting Facts and Features

Although ligers, like many other hybrids, tend to be sterile, female ligers are known to be able to bear offspring, but fertile male ligers have never been recorded. Depending on the type of father, she will mate with a male lion or tiger to produce a litter of ligers or tigons. One of the most famous ligers is Hollywood's creation of Hercules, the offspring of a male lion and a tigress at a research institute in Florida. At three years old, he was 10 feet tall and weighed half a ton standing on his hind legs. Another reason ligers rarely breed in the wild is that if a male and female tiger meet, they are more likely to fight to defend their territory, or avoid each other altogether, lest they get injured.

Ligers are usually bred by chance

© Becker1999/Flickr

relationship with humans

Ligers have been bred since the early 1800s, when a litter of cubs was born in Asia in 1824. However, it was more than 100 years before the next litter of ligers appeared in South African zoos on the eve of World War II. Although ligers are known to be fairly even-tempered, cross-breeding of two different animal species persists Plenty of controversy, especially since this is highly unlikely to happen without human intervention. Many ligers are found today in zoos and zoological institutes around the world, where they were bred (often by accident) and kept as money-making attractions.

Protect the status quo and life today

Since ligers are an artificial cross between two different species and are not found in the wild, ligers have no real scientific name and therefore no protected status. Ligers are only found in a handful of enclosures on Earth, but since they don't exist in the wild they have no conservation value, so many people still dislike them. Fewer tigons are found today than ligers, but they outnumbered ligers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many countries in the world now prohibit the breeding of ligers.

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Liger FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Are ligers herbivores, carnivores or omnivores?

Ligers are carnivores, which means they eat other animals.

Which kingdom does the liger belong to?

Ligers belong to the animal kingdom.

Which category does a liger belong to?

Ligers belong to the class of mammals.

What door do ligers belong to?

Ligers belong to the phylum Chordate.

What family do ligers belong to?

Ligers belong to the cat family.

What order do ligers belong to?

Ligers belong to the order Carnivora.

What type of mulch do ligers have?

Ligers are covered with fur.

What genus does the liger belong to?

Ligers belong to the genus Panthera.

Where do ligers live?

Ligers live in zoos.

What type of habitat do ligers live in?

Ligers do not occur in nature.

Who are the natural enemies of ligers?

Natural enemies of ligers include humans.

What are some interesting facts about ligers?

Ligers are offspring of lions and tigers!

What is the scientific name of the liger?

The scientific name of the liger is Panthera leo or Panthera tigris.

How long does a liger live?

Ligers can live 18 to 22 years.

What is the name of the little liger?

Small ligers are called cubs.

How many species of ligers are there?

There is 1 species of liger.

What is the biggest threat to ligers?

The biggest threat to ligers is commercial breeding.

How many ligers are left in the world?

The population size of ligers is unknown.

How fast is a liger?

Ligers can travel at speeds of 50 miles per hour.

What is the difference between a liger and a tiger?

The main differences between ligers and tigers include size, weight, appearance, behaviour, roar distance and lifespan. Ligers are hybrids of lions and tigers, so they resemble tigers in appearance. Like tigers, ligers belong to the genus Panthera, which includes all spotted wild cats with specialized anatomy that helps them roar.

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source
  1. David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2011) Animals, The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife
  2. Tom Jackson, Lorenz Books (2007) Encyclopedia of World Animals
  3. David Burney, Kingfisher (2011) The Animal Encyclopedia of Kingfishers
  4. Richard Mackay, University of California Press (2009) Atlas of Threatened Species
  5. David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2008) Illustrated Animal Encyclopedia
  6. Dorling Kindersley (2006) Dorling Kindersley Animal Encyclopedia
  7. David W. Macdonald, Oxford University Press (2010) Encyclopedia of Mammals
  8. Liger Hybrid Facts, available here: http://www.helium.com/items/934943-liger-facts-hybrid-of-lion-and-tigress
  9. Largest Liger, available here: http://www.worldamazinginformation.com/2007/10/worlds-largest-liger-liontiger.html
  10. About ligers are available here: http://www.lairweb.org.nz/tiger/ligers.html
  11. Liger information, available here: http://www.liger.org/