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poison dart frog

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The poison dart frog is a small frog that lives in Central and South America.

© AZ-Animals.com

To protect them from predators, one of their main adaptations is their brightly colored skin, which can vary in color from yellow to bright blue or red. This skin warns predators looking to add them to their diet that these tiny frogs are highly poisonous if ingested.

5 Unbelievable Poison Dart Frog Facts!

  • A group of poison dart frogs is known as an "army".
  • One of this frog's adaptability is its brightly colored body, which ranges from blue to red, black to golden yellow.
  • Poison dart frogs are sometimes called "poison dart frogs."
  • The golden poison dart frog is the most poisonous of all frogs, with enough toxin in its body to kill more than 20,000 mice.
  • Certain varieties of these frog poisons are showing promise in the medical field, including one that has been synthetically engineered for use as a painkiller in humans.

scientific name

The poison dart frog is a member of the poison dart frog family.

© Splette/CC BY-SA 3.0 – License

These frogs belong to a wide range of genera and species and have many different scientific names. There are over 175 known species. However, they all belong to the Dendrobium family. The scientific name is derived from the Greek word for tree dendro , which is also used for the word dendrology, the study of trees. Batēs is a Greek word meaning "one who steps on". Thus, the surname Dendrobatidae means "one who reads in a tree", or simply "tree climber".

appearance

Red-headed poison dart frog Ranitomeya fantastica tropical amphibian from the Peruvian Amazon jungle.
Poison dart frogs have gorgeous colors and patterns on their skin.

©Dirk Ercken/Shutterstock.com



One of the famous adaptations of these frogs is their brightly colored skin. This skin warns predators of their highly toxic secretions. The term for organisms that have bright colors to warn predators that they are poisonous is called "warning coloration."

Different species come in a rainbow of colors including blue, yellow, red, green, gold and black. One of the most venomous members of the species, the strawberry poison dart frog has a bright red body and blue legs. The golden poison dart frog is also particularly dangerous, with enough venom to kill more than 20,000 rats. It is also the largest poison dart frog species.

However, the truth is that not all members of the poison dart frog family are poisonous, or brightly colored. Some obscure species come in tans and browns, and these species are generally nontoxic to most animals.

These frogs tend to be small, with an average length of about 1 inch. Like most frogs, they have smooth, moist skin and webbed toes.

evolution

Blue Poison Frog, Dendrobates Azureus
Their life-threatening toxins and picturesque patterns are the most notable features of poison dart frog adaptations.

©Dirk Ercken/Shutterstock.com

It is believed that poison dart frogs first began expressing their signature mutation and evolved from their non-toxic relatives sometime between 20-40 million years ago. In addition to producing powerful venom and striking warning colors, these amphibians must develop resistance to their own toxins in order to survive, an evolutionary hurdle that all venomous creatures must overcome. The poison dart frog does this by genetically manipulating a single amino acid in its DNA.

The wide variety of species and genera all display their own unique color variants, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity in these amphibians, with scientists thinking some new species first appeared as early as 6,000 years ago.

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Behavior

Incredible Rainforest Animals: The Poison Dart Frog
Poison dart frogs use their bright colors to warn of the presence of deadly toxins in their bodies.

©Dirk Ercken/Shutterstock.com

Some facts about the behavior of these frogs include their preference to live in the trees closest to the ground, or in leaf litter on the jungle floor. They prefer to rest on leaves and branches.

These frogs rattle and squeak like other frog species, using these calls to build habitat and attract mates. They are mostly diurnal, which means they are active during the day.

These frogs rarely try to hide from predators because their skin is already warning enough. If their toxins don't kill predators, they at least make them highly unappetizing. Predators will remember the frog's unpleasant taste and may not try to eat another frog.

Habitat

Many poison dart frogs are endemic to the Amazon rainforest.

© Adrian Pingstone – Public Domain

These frogs are native to the humid rainforests of Central and South America. They are sometimes confused with another small, brightly colored frog called Mantella, but Mantellas are only native to Madagascar.

These frogs were also introduced to Hawaii. They used to be imported in large numbers into the United States for the pet trade, but this has since slowed down. In Europe, certain species of frogs are smuggled into the country.

Due to their environmental sensitivity, these frogs do not do well in heavily polluted areas.

diet

Mimic Poison Frog
Poison dart frogs eat mostly small insects.

© Frank Cornelissen/Shutterstock.com

These frogs use their long, sticky tongues to catch insects. This diet makes the frog a carnivore. Their diet includes termites, flies, ants, and many other types of insects that are plentiful in the habitats in which poison dart frogs live.

Tadpoles can be omnivorous and will sometimes eat algae. They also sometimes get unfertilized eggs from their parents. Some species of frogs are even cannibals, eating other species of tadpoles.

The poison dart frog's diet is thought to be responsible for its toxicity. Scientists aren't sure which insects the frogs eat that make them poisonous. However, captive frogs and fed crickets and fruit flies did not release the toxin from their skin.

Predators and Threats

Most Colorful Animal: Blue Dart Frog
Poison dart frogs are often threatened with habitat loss due to deforestation.

©Natalia Kuzmina/Shutterstock.com

Because the toxins in their skin make most animals inedible or even poisonous, poison dart frogs do not have a wide range of natural enemies. One species of snake, Leimadophis epinephelus, is immune to poison dart frog venom.

Frogs, including poison dart frogs, sometimes fall prey to chytrid fungi. The disease is an infectious fungus that causes lethargy, weight loss and eventually death. It is highly contagious and threatens more than 100 different frog species.

Many poison dart frog species are listed as endangered or critically endangered due to habitat loss and pollution. Vast tracts of rainforest are routinely burned to make room for farmland and also felled for timber. Some species are also captured and exported for the pet trade.

Reproduction, Babies and Longevity

Red strawberry poison dart frog, Dendrobates pumilio, in its natural habitat, Costa Rica.
Poison dart frogs make mesmerizing noises during mating season.

© Ondrej Prosicky/Shutterstock.com

Poison dart frogs reproduce several times throughout the year, usually in conjunction with periods of rainfall. Both males and females are aggressive during this time – males compete for ideal habitat to call a mate, and females compete for nesting areas. Females have sometimes been known to devour the eggs of other frogs.

Once the male has signaled for courtship and finds a female with whom to breed, the mating process occurs. The male lures the female to a place where he wants to mate through an elaborate courtship ritual. This courtship involves wrestling, petting, and leading the female around. The ceremony goes on for several hours, and the female can lay her eggs, before the pair decide to settle.

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Females lay their eggs in moist leaf litter. The number of eggs varies from 1 egg to 40 eggs, with an average clutch of about 10 eggs. Once the female lays eggs, the male fertilizes the eggs. Both parents will guard the eggs, taking care to make sure they don't dry out.

Once the tadpoles hatch, the parents carry the tadpoles about 10 to 18 days after the eggs are fertilized. When the frog parents sit in the tadpole colony, they can climb on the parent's back. Parents take their children one at a time to the small pool where they can grow and mature. The tadpoles develop into adult frogs after a few months. In this young form, they are especially vulnerable to predators.

The lifespan of poison dart frogs has not been well studied. In the wild, some scientists say they live as little as three years. Some species in captivity have been reported to live up to 25 years.

population

Many poison dart frog species are critically endangered.

©iStock.com/Artush

The poison dart frog, like many other species in the South American rainforests, is in decline. Some species are endangered or critically endangered due to habitat loss, climate change and fungal diseases. Due to the large number of species and their remote location, accurate population data cannot be measured.

poison dart frog in zoo

Poison dart frog with tadpoles on its back, Andonobates bombetes
Many zoos have exhibits where you can safely encounter poison dart frogs.

©Dirk Ercken/Shutterstock.com

These frogs are common sights in zoos and aquariums everywhere. The San Diego Zoo and the Smithsonian have captive poison dart frogs, as well as the Reed Park Zoo and the Seneca Park Zoo.

In zoos, these frogs were fed insects that did not cause the toxins in their skin. They are fed such insects because they often need to be handled by zookeepers and veterinarians while in captivity.

Types of poison dart frogs

There are over 300 different species of poison dart frogs, and you can find a complete list of each species below:

Mountain Rocket Frog assign alessandroi
spotted nurse frog Allocation Algorithm
(no common name) Allobates amissibilis
(no common name) assign bacurau
Coast Rocket Frog pineapple
Zopada Rocket Frog Brunes
(no common name) blue-toed dragon
(no common name) allotment caribbean
(no common name) allocation whale
Martinique volcano frog Flax Chalcopis
(no common name) Allocation conspicuous
(no common name) Flammulina velutipes
Bright-legged poison frog assign femur
yellow-bellied brook frog day lily
Mera Rana Flax
(no common name) matsutake
(no common name) Assignment Gascony
Goias Rocket Frog Allobates goianus
Poison frog grant allocation
(no common name) rape
(no common name) Allobates grillisimilis
(no common name) assign hodli
Bocono Rocket Frog Smilax
The Nurse Frog of Serranía De Perijá assign inotus
Santa Cecilia Salt Marsh Rana exotic
Juami River Rocket Frog assign juami
(no common name) assign juanii
(no common name) assign camille
Kingsbury's Rocket Frog kingsbury
(no common name) Magnusoni
Mount Turumiquire Rocket Frog mandala
dull rocket frog Allobates marchesianus
(no common name) assign masniger
Mcdiarmid's Rocket Frog madir midi
(no common name) melanin
Miles' Poison Frog honeysuckle
(no common name) Nidikora
(no common name) Assign niputidea
(no common name) canary
Rio Rocket Frog Allobates olfersioides
(no common name) Red Spotted Bamboo
(no common name) Assign pacas
(no common name) Allobates paleci
Amazon Nurse Frog Allobates paleovarzensis
(no common name) assign picachos
(no common name) assign pittieri
Janos Rocket Frog distribute ranoids
St. Martin's Rocket Frog allocating san martini
(no common name) Copillidae
(no common name) Allobates subfolionidificans
(no common name) Assign sumtuosus
Striped Rocket Frog Talamanca
(no common name) Prepare Tapas
(no common name) athlete's foot
Three-striped Rocket Frog triangular nematode
(no common name) Ripple algae
(no common name) Allobates vanzolinius
Singing Frog Allobates velocicantus
Escherichia coli Assign wayuu
Zapparo's Poison Frog assign zapparo
(no common name) tongue lizard
(no common name) Ayal Zagnac tongue lizard
(no common name) ape
Bibby's Rocket Frog bebage tongue lizard
(no common name) white lizard
(no common name) Strangeglossus cerevisiae
De Granville's Rocket Frog Threshing Lizard
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Guannan strange tongue lizard
Kay's Rock Frog Strange tongue
Leopard Rocket Frog leopard tongue lizard
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Heteroglossus
Sarisariñama Rocket Frog Mofitiki tongue lizard
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Strange tongue lizard
(no common name) Strange tongue fish
Roraima Rocket Frog Rhododendron
Chimantá poison frog red tongue lizard
(no common name) Heteroglossus
Shreve's Rocket Frog Lizard
Stephen's Rocket Frog Strange tongue fish
Suriname Rock Frog Suriname Lizard
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) quilla
(no common name) Lichen triglossus
(no common name) Helicopterus
(no common name) Heteroglossus
(no common name) Strange tongue lizard
White-bellied Rocket Frog Aromobates alboguttatus
(no common name) coriander
Sierra Nevada Rocket Frog Aromobates capurinensis
Durant's Rocket Frog Aromatic Duranti
(no common name) aromatic plants
El Vivero Rocket Frog aromatic plants
(no common name) aromatization
Leopard Rocket Frog Fragrant Leopard
Mayorga Rocket Frog Aromatic Mayogues
Merida Rocket Frog essence
Las Playitas Rocket Frog Aromobates molinarii
Venezuelan Skunk Frog promote nocturne
gorgeous cloud frog Aromobates ornatissimus
Tachira Rocket Frog chewing gum
Salty Rocket Frog vanilla
Pefaur's Rocket Frog Aromobates serranus
Perryha's Nurse Frog Aromatic Tokuko
Piñango Rocket Frog aromatic plants
(no common name) aromatic zippeli
(no common name) Nectar Hibiscus
collared poison frog Mannophryne collaris
(no common name) Manna
Hermine's Poison Frog manna fish
(no common name) Manofrin
(no common name) honeydew
(no common name) Manofrin
(no common name) Manofrin
Aragua Poison Frog honeydew
saint teresa poison frog manna grass
Bloody Bay Poison Frog Mannolinae
Orellana's Collared Frog honeydew
Rivero's Poison Frog Nectar Hibiscus
(no common name) honeydew
Trinidad Poison Frog Manna
(no common name) manna grass
itchy collared frog Mannophryne urticaria
(no common name) Venezuelan Manna
caracas collared frog Mannophryne Volcano
Yacambu poison frog Mannophryne yustizi
Palm Rocket Frog Palmprint Cancer
(no common name) False Palm Cancer
Tarapoto Poison Frog alpine jellyfish
La Planada Poison Frog geranium
cute poison frog sea bass
(no common name) amiregaberojoka
ecuadorian poison frog Amirega bilingual
(no common name) Huanghuamei
bolivian poison frog amirega bolivia
(no common name) Periplaneta
Lena Raki Poison Frog Ameerega cainarachi
Palenque Poison Frog Red spot seaweed
yellow spotted frog Huanghua pear
(no common name) Amyrega Hanelli
(no common name) fire lobster
riddle poison frog Amyrega Imasmari
Niceforo's Poison Frog crabapple
(no common name) lip tooth fish
Manu Poison Frog Amirega Marcello
Confused Poison Frog Striped clamworm
(no common name) amiregamunduruku
Pangua Poison Frog jaguar
Ruby Poison Dart Frog purple geranium
(no common name) chili
(no common name) Arabidopsis
peruvian poison frog day lily
Spot-legged Poison Frog Ameerega picta
Oxapampa poison frog Flat-winged crabapple
(no common name) crabapple
(no common name) seaweed
(no common name) bullfinch seaweed
Amarakaeri Poison Frog Ameerega shihuemoy
Poison Frogs at Silverstone Ameerega silverstonei
(no common name) Ameerega mimic
Three-striped poison frog sea buckthorn
(no common name) Amirega Genai
(no common name) purple spruce
Cocka Rocket Frog colostrum
Finca Primavera Rocket Frog Colostrum
Striped Throated Rocket Frog Lactobacillus armalis
(no common name) black colostrum
(no common name) Dysprosium colostrum
Santa Rita Rocket Frog Escherichia coli
(no common name) Cowgrass
Rocket Frog at Silverstone Umbrella vegetables
Common Rocket Frog inguinal colostrum
Trando Rocket Frog Colostrum
(no common name) sirloin
Mertens' Rocket Frog sirloin
Panamanian Rocket Frog Panama Colostrum
Amazon Rocket Frog Purslane
Platt's Rocket Frog sirloin
(no common name) Escherichia coli
(no common name) Bullfish
Thornton's Rocket Frog Erythrina
(no common name) cashew nuts
(no common name) colostrum
Anthony's poison dart frog Anthony Mayfly
Rana Ground beetle
Darwin and Wallace's Rana Darwin's wood beetle
Espinoza Rana clawed toad
(no common name) dung beetle
Chengye poison frog Aquatic ground beetle
Phantom Poison Frog tricolor wood beetle
Rocket Frog silver belly fish
Pizza Rana ginkgo
Pastaza Rana ginkgo
(no common name) Grouper
(no common name) silver needle
(no common name) Marble Silverstone
(no common name) silverstone grass
Rainforest Rocket Frog silverstone float
(no common name) throat silver stone
(no common name) tiny silverstone
(no common name) Little Silverstone
rocket frog Silverstone Algae
(no common name) silverstone grass
brazil nut poison frog chinchilla
Splashback Poison Frog Lactobacillus
Rio Madeira Poison Frog dolphin
collins poison frog Valium
Alto De Buey Poison Frog alpine bullfrog
Coca Poison Frog giraffe
Cassidy's Poison Dart Frog Andinobates cassidyhornae
(no common name) claus' bullfrog
(no common name) long tail catfish
(no common name) Scarab subfamily
yellow belly poison frog Lightning Dragon
Gemini dart frog twin subfamily
Windbellied Poison Frog Small salamander
andean poison frog black lobster
Supata gold poison frog Xenopus
(no common name) Valium
(no common name) termite
green poison frog frog
Santander Poison Frog poison frog
Golden Arrow – Poison Frog dendrobium
yellow-banded poison frog Dendrobium nobile
(no common name) Dendrobium walnut
frog dendrobium
Yellow Poison Frog Dendrobium truncated
rio santiago poison frog dung beetle
vulture poison frog vulture
Marañón Poison Frog Mysterious Vanessa
Poison Frog Steyrmark Minyobat
(no common name) Nereis
(no common name) whitefly
polka dot poison frog psyllid
Granular Poison Frog granular egg phage
Harlequin Poison Frog opera bird
Lyman's Poison Frog Lyman mosquito
la brea poison frog Oviphagus
Strawberry Poison Frog whitefly
(no common name) egg fluke
gorgeous poison frog large egg lice
little devil poison frog anteater
Vicente's Poison Frog Vincent the Giant Anteater
Kokoe Poison Frog Purple leaf algae
Bicolor Poison Dart Frog Dichromophyllum
cute poison frog Nymph
Golden Poison Frog Trichophylla
poison frog Trichophylla
(no common name) amazon frog
(no common name) pitaya
(no common name) frog
(no common name) Ranitomeya defleri
Red-headed Poison Frog Strange Frog King
(no common name) yellow flower frog
Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator
Red-backed Poison Frog reticulated frog
Syrah poison frog sea turtle
(no common name) Ranitomeya summersi
(no common name) Ranitomeya toraro
(no common name) frogs
brazilian poison frog Lannyia wansonii
Zimmermann's Poison Frog Nepenthes variabilis
Amazon Poison Frog Spotted Frog
(no common name) fern
(no common name) exotic tongue fish
(no common name) Exoglossus
(no common name) tongue fish
Rana tongue fish
(no common name) tongue fish
(no common name) tongue fish
(no common name) Exogenous algae
Bello Rocket Frog isoform acid
(no common name) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
South American Rocket Frog Bacillus anthracis
(no common name) diatomite
Awa Rocket Frog Sourroot
sky blue poison frog comfrey root
(no common name) Bugloss
Bocage's Rocket Frog black root grass
(no common name) black root grass
Urrao Rocket Frog short ear grass
Paranda Rocket Frog Sourroot
(no common name) green tip grass
Chocolate Rocket Frog black root grass
(no common name) seaweed
Rana black root grass
Edwards' Rocket Frog Edward Root Grass
Loja Rocket Frog saber-toothed tiger
(no common name) Tequila
Yapitya Rocket Frog Acid-alkali grass
(no common name) Sourroot
Port Narino Rocket Frog speckled sorghum
Cotopaxi Rocket Frog sorghum
(no common name) black root grass
(no common name) long tail acid
Kiyos Rocket Frog black acid root
Rivero's Rocket Frog grass
Chimbo Rocket Frog Little tongue grass
(no common name) Mignonette
Pastaza Rana italian sour root
Quito Rana Dianthus
(no common name) sorghum
Lyman's Rocket Frog Lymanate
(no common name) white long ear grass
Little Rocket Frog Coastal alumina
Spotted Rocket Frog black root grass
Rana sorghum
Rio Negro Rocket Frog corn
Mittermeier's Rocket Frog Mitt eargrass
Cloud Forest Rocket Frog Short Kiss
Los Tayos Rocket Frog Hypoxic algae
Galaceo Rocket Frog hypoxic grass
(no common name) plumbaceous acid
funny rocket frog Henoxyrhiza
Peruvian Rocket Frog Peruvian tongue grass
Malvassa Rocket Frog penguin
Espada's Rocket Frog short ear grass
San Vicente Rocket Frog short sword grass
Ramos' Rocket Frog black root grass
Ruiz's Rocket Frog rhinoceros
(no common name) Salina
(no common name) St. Mary's sourroot
Saint Cecilia Rocket Frog Clostridium
San Diego Rocket Frog Sourroot
(no common name) Acid-alkali grass
(no common name) Spirulina
Bogota Rocket Frog quacate
Forest Rocket Frog Sourroot
Rana Dianthus
(no common name) Eugen Grass
Hellmich's Rocket Frog Saber Grass
Boulenger's Rocket Frog spine grass
Tanti Rocket Frog White Lily
Yasuni Rana black root grass

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My name is Corinna! In my profile photo you can see me with one of my two cats, Bisky! The other is Yma, a beautiful black Bombay cat. I'm 24 years old and live in Birmingham, Alabama with my partner, Anastasia, and enjoy making music, collecting records, and reading in my free time. Some of the other animals I own are a hamster, two chihuahuas, and many different kinds of fish.

Poison Dart Frog FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Are poison dart frogs herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?

Poison dart frogs are carnivores, which means they eat other animals.

To which kingdom do poison dart frogs belong?

Poison dart frogs belong to the animal kingdom.

Which category do poison dart frogs belong to?

Poison dart frogs belong to the class of amphibians.

What phylum do poison dart frogs belong to?

Poison dart frogs belong to the phylum Chordate.

What family do poison dart frogs belong to?

Poison dart frogs belong to the family Poison Dart Frogs.

What order do poison dart frogs belong to?

Poison dart frogs belong to the order Anura.

What type of mulch do poison dart frogs have?

Poison dart frogs are covered with permeable skin.

What type of habitat do poison dart frogs live in?

Poison dart frogs live in tropical jungles and humid forests.

What is the main prey of poison dart frogs?

Poison dart frogs prey on insects, ants, and spiders.

Who are the natural enemies of poison dart frogs?

Predators of poison dart frogs include snakes.

How many babies does a poison dart frog have?

The average number of young in a poison dart frog is 10.

What are some interesting facts about poison dart frogs?

Poison dart frogs inhabit the jungles of Central and South America!

What is the lifespan of poison dart frogs?

Poison dart frogs can live 2 to 4 years.

How fast are poison dart frogs?

Poison dart frogs can travel at speeds of up to 10 miles per hour.

What Do Poison Dart Frogs Eat?

Poison dart frogs eat insects, including flies, larvae, beetles, and termites. Poison dart frog tadpoles also sometimes eat algae and unfertilized eggs. Certain species of poison dart frogs eat other species of tadpoles.

What Do Poison Dart Frogs Eat?

Not many animals eat poison dart frogs for their skin. At best, this skin provides a bad taste in the predator's mouth. Worse, this skin can be poisonous.

What are the predators of poison dart frogs?

Only one species of snake is known to be immune to the poison dart frog's venom, and that's Leimadophis epinephelus . It primarily preys on the largest and most venomous species, the golden poison dart frog, which has enough toxin in its skin to immobilize ten people.

Can Poison Dart Frogs Kill You?

Certain species of frogs, such as the strawberry poison dart frog, produce toxins in their skin. Strawberry poison dart frogs irritate only when in contact with human skin. However, it can be fatal if ingested or enters the body through a wound. That's how the poison dart frog got its name—indigenous tribes used its poison to darts and arrows for defense or hunting. A dart or arrow creates a wound in the skin where the poison enters and kills the victim.

Can you touch a poison dart frog?

It depends on the species of frog. Some species are harmless to humans, while others may cause only mild irritation when handled. When holding potentially venomous species, it is crucial to make sure there are no cuts or open wounds. It also depends on the frog's diet. Wild poison dart frogs eat insects that cause their toxicity. In captivity, most frogs do not have the proper diet to produce toxic toxins in their skin.

How do you care for a poison dart frog?

Poison dart frogs in captivity need moist conditions to stay happy. Humidity should be as close to 100% as possible. Caring for poison dart frogs means making sure their enclosures are kept between 72 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit at all times. These frogs are delicate and should not be handled very often. Their diet in captivity consists of crickets, larvae and fruit flies, which means that if the frog wasn't wild, it wouldn't produce the toxins that wild poison dart frogs do.

How do poison dart frogs give birth?

Poison dart frogs lay eggs.

Which is more deadly to humans, the golden dart frog or the inland taipan frog?

The key attributes that determine which of the golden dart frog and the inland taipan frog are more lethal to humans are the venom LD50, how the toxin was introduced, proximity to humans, and human mortality.

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source
  1. Wikipedia, available here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poison_dart_frog
  2. National Geographic, available here: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/group/poison-dart-frogs/
  3. National Geographic Kids, available here: https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/poison-dart-frog/
  4. Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, available here: https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/poison-frogs
  5. Encyclopedia Britannica, available here: https://www.britannica.com/animal/poison-frog
  6. San Diego Zoo, available here: https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/poison-frog
  7. Animals Network, available here: https://animals.net/poison-dart-frog/
  8. Frogpets, available here: https://www.frogpets.com/poison-dart-frog/
  9. Center for Invasive Species Research, available here: https://cisr.ucr.edu/invasive-species/chytrid-fungus